Recently, heavy fog has occurred frequently in coastal areas such as the South China Sea, which has seriously affected the safety of navigation. Guangdong Maritime Reminder: At present, entering the foggy season, ships sailing and working in the fog should strengthen their hopes, maintain a safe distance for navigation, and ensure safe navigation.
The Guangzhou area gradually entered the rain and fog season, with many days of light rain and high air humidity, and the visibility of some waters in the Pearl River estuary was poor. In order to ensure the safety of the ship's fog, the Guangzhou Huangpu Marine Department recently inspected the safety inspection of small and medium-sized ships in the area under its jurisdiction, focusing on the inspection of fog-related equipment to ensure the safety of ships in the jurisdiction.
Recently, the Jiangmen area ushered in continuous rainfall, resulting in a foggy area and poor visibility. In order to grasp the water navigation situation in the jurisdiction and maintain a good navigation order, the Jiangmen Xinhui Marine Department conducted inspections on the waters of Tanjiang and Yinzhou Lake. When inspecting the container ships, the law enforcement officers reminded the crew to strictly implement the requirements of the loading manual to bind the goods. The “Safety of Ships Passing Bridge Waters” was distributed to the crew to remind the foggy weather to pass through the bridge waters cautiously.
Recently, there have been dense fogs with visibility less than 500 meters in the Huilai area, which has brought safety hazards to the navigation of ships. Jieyang Huilai Maritime Department encrypts the frequency of “Ping An Voice” and sends a foggy safety reminder message to the passing ships in the jurisdiction through telephone and smart platform. It cruises the navigation channel of Jinghai Power Plant, senior and Shibeishan waters, and pays close attention to the past ship dynamics. Investigate safety hazards in time to ensure good water navigation.
Recently, the Shantou area has been flooded with light fog, and the visibility of the water surface is low, which affects the safety of navigation. The Chenghai Marine Department of Shantou strengthens early warning and prevention, and grasps the safety reminder work of severe weather such as dense fog weather. It reminds through smart maritime SMS platform and telephone. Relatives pay close attention to the weather. Passenger ferries must strictly follow the regulations for passengers' severe weather restrictions, strengthen the awareness of fog prevention, implement preventive measures, and do not sail when visibility is poor, so as to ensure navigation safety.
What are the characteristics of the ship's fog?
(1) Poor visibility and limited visibility;
(2) Due to poor visibility, it is impossible to find the surrounding ships at a sufficient distance, and to quickly judge the dynamics of the ship and the evasive actions taken by other ships, which can only rely on AIS, radar observation and plotting, and the difficulty of avoiding ships;
(3) Due to the limitation of sight, it is impossible to find nearby objects and navigation marks in time, which causes great difficulties in positioning and navigation;
(4) After the safe speed is used for navigation in the fog, the influence of the wind flow on the ship is increased, which greatly affects the accuracy of the estimated speed and range. It not only reduces the accuracy of the estimated ship position, but also directly affects the ship near the dangerous object. The safety of navigation.
Fog should pay attention
1. If you enter the fog, you should adjust the offshore distance of the route in time.
If the offshore distance of the planned route is 2-3n mile according to good visibility, there should be 3-4 n mile or even 5n mile between the route and the coast in the fog flight to ensure sufficient leeway between the ship and the shore. .
2, sailing in the fog, the duty driver must do a good job in the calculation of the track.
In order to improve the accuracy of the estimated position, it is not advisable to change the course and speed frequently. When traveling along the coast, sounding is one of the important ways to check the calculations. Sometimes, a certain contour line can also be used as a risk alert line. The sounding data and time shall be recorded in the vicinity of the corresponding estimated ship position on the chart for analysis of the flight path estimation and estimation of future trends. Appropriate estimates should be made for the accuracy of the estimated position, and if necessary, draw and try to narrow the probability of the ship's area. Once the instrument fails, the calculated position becomes the sole basis for the ship.
3. Use all available means to locate and navigate as much as possible, especially with full use of radar.
At present, radar has become an indispensable navigation aid for foggy navigation, and with the continuous improvement of the performance of marine radar technology, it will play an increasingly important role. In order to use the radar to navigate and evade in the foggy flight, the driver on duty is required to fully grasp the technical characteristics of the radar, be good at distinguishing various interference echoes, and can quickly recognize images and observe. Look at the radar, you should choose the appropriate distance file: 12-24 n mile distance can be used for ocean navigation; 6-12n mile distance path for coastal navigation; narrow waterway navigation should be used for distance and distance, 2-6 n mile . Of course, even a better-performing radar is not as intuitive and reliable as visuals, so you should not blindly rely on radar and ignore visual aspirations. In order not to affect the look and work of the driver on duty, special personnel can be assigned to radar observation and plotting during the fog.
4, sailing in the fog, should always grasp the actual visibility distance under the visibility at that time.
This can be based on visual inspection of a certain object, such as finding the encounter with the ship while using the radar to measure its distance. If it is other objects that are difficult to detect by radar, you can record the log reading when you visually find it, and then record the reading of the log when it is horizontal. The log range between the two observations is roughly equivalent to the actual time. Can see the distance. Of course, the visible distance in the fog will vary according to the concentration of the fog. It cannot be fixed and should be noted.
5, pay attention to listening to the sound number
The role of the sound in the fog is to warn the ship of the danger. The distance of the sound varies with the weather (wind direction, wind, etc.), and the distance cannot be judged according to the size of the sound. The sound does not travel in a straight line in the air, especially in the vicinity of the sound source, which is irregular. Although it is near the sound source, in some different places, sometimes the sound is not heard, that is, there is a silence zone. When there is fog on the sea near the fog station and there is no fog around it, the fog alarm equipment may not work, and the ship cannot hear the fog number. This situation occurs especially at night. In addition, the fog whistle and fog clock only work when there are wind and waves, and the sound changes with the size of the wind and waves. Therefore, sailing in the fog can not judge the safety of the navigation of the ship solely by the size or presence of the sound. In short, if you hear the sound, you should regard the ship in the danger zone and take all necessary measures to avoid it. In the position that should be heard without hearing the sound, it should not be arbitrarily determined that it has not entered the danger zone.
When sailing along a high and steep shore at a distance of 2-3n mile, according to the echo of the ship's sound, the ship's shore distance can be roughly calculated, that is, when the sound signal is started, the stopwatch is started, and when the echo is heard, the stopwatch is stopped. Multiply the 1/2 of the stopwatch reading by the speed of the sound, which is the approximate distance of the ship's shore.
6, seriously strengthen the lookout
Skilled lookouts must be able to detect any minor changes around the ship in time. E.g:
1 When the wind direction wind speed is stable, the sudden wave weakens, indicating that the ship may be close to the upwind coast or shallow water area; conversely, if the wind wave suddenly increases, it means there may be a large bay mouth along the windward coast;
2 The sailing conditions have not changed, and the wind suddenly becomes smaller, indicating that the ship may be very close to the high steep shore;
3 changes in seawater color and transparency, if the seawater becomes cloudy, the ship may be close to the bottom of the mud or the estuary;
4 Find floating objects such as seaweed, seaweed, etc. at sea, which is a sign close to the coast; if fishing gear, garbage and oil traces are found on the sea surface, it means that there are boats nearby;
5 The discovery of a large number of seabirds and sea animals also indicates that they are close to land or icebergs.
What does the crew do?
Before the fog hits, the driver on duty should seize the opportunity and use the navigation instrument to determine the position of the ship.
When the fog hits, the driver on duty should take the following measures immediately and report the captain:
(1) Shake the preparatory vehicle, appropriately reduce the speed, and notify the on-duty engineer of the fog condition (the degree of slow speed should be determined according to the line of sight at the time, the ability and flexibility of the ship to reverse, that is, sailing in the fog, If you suddenly find a ship, you are generally required to stop the ship on the halfway of the ship.)
(2) Begin to issue the fog number;
(3) Dispatching the sailor to the bow of the ship, if the wind is too large to look at the bow, you can send him to look at the bridge;
(4) Order to close all or part of the watertight door, as the case may be;
(5) Prepare various types of life-saving equipment for use at any time, and prepare at least one lifeboat to be immediately released.
After the captain learned of the fog attack, he must immediately go to the bridge to direct the command. The driver on duty informs the master of the position of the ship, the surrounding environment and the measures taken. The master should study the measures taken and pay special attention to whether the current speed of the ship is correct. If the fog flight lasts for a long time, the captain may, according to the circumstances, give a rest to the driver on duty and rest in the chart room.
Regardless of the speed of the ship, the on-duty engineer should keep the boiler at full steam pressure so that it can reversing at full speed in an emergency.
Chief engineer -
The chief engineer should always supervise and inspect the engine room to ensure that the machine, electricity, furnace equipment and its system are operating normally.
In the fog, the ship operator shall, in accordance with the relevant regulations, obtain close contact with the nearby ship and obtain information on the ship's name, position, speed, heading and fog.
All ship personnel -
Keep the whole ship silent, prohibit the shackles, prohibit the sound that affects the hearing, and prohibit the cabin lights from being exposed at night. At the same time, open the relevant doors and windows of the bridge.